For the impatient reader, let us get to the bottom line right away:

CGAL produces correct results, in spite of intermediate roundoff errors. If three lines meet in one point, they will do so in CGAL as well, and if a fourth line misses this point by 1.0e-380, then it also misses it in CGAL. Situations that are sometimes tagged as "degenerate" (like a 3-D point set actually living in a 2-D plane) are properly handled by CGAL. In fancy terms, this is called the exact computation paradigm, and it ultimately relies on computing with numbers of arbitrary precision. The exact computation paradigm is not an invention of CGAL, but CGAL is probably the place that implements it at a large scale.

Such guaranteed correctness requires that CGAL is properly used (see the FAQ section on using inexact number types), and it comes at a price: compared to algorithms that use fixed-precision numbers only, the performance is lower. In the best case (as in computing Delaunay triangulations in 3-space), the overhead is around 25%. This is possible because CGAL tracks error bounds and resorts to extended precision only when this is really needed.

Computing arrangements of segments is an application that is more demanding with respect to extended precision, and the overhead may increase to 80%. In other applications, the price of exact computation can grow well beyond that. But whatever the price: if you decide to pay it, you will not have to worry about robustness issues.

It may well be that you don't worry about robustness issues anyway, maybe because your favorite geometric software has never let you down in this respect. You may just have been lucky in this case: robustness in geometric computing is a delicate issue that is not amenable to the usual numerical methods that are successful in other fields. If you want to understand why even your favorite geometric software may fail, and how CGAL solves the robustness problem, you are now welcome among the more patient readers.

### Robustness: The Simple Approach

In working with real numbers on real computers, there is one basic rule: never compare two floating-point numbers for true equality. In theory, you might be able to deduce that they are the same, but due to roundoff, they always turn out slightly different.

You certainly know this, and you also know a simple approach for solving the problem in practice: if the two numbers differ by less than some small tolerance, treat them as equal. This often works, but you can never be sure about it.

### The Numerical Approach

If roundoff may accumulate, the simple approach definitely fails, but you know that there are well-established and reliable techniques from numerical analysis to control roundoff and get robust code. So you assume that the makers of high-quality geometric software have made their homework and get this right.

But in spite of all efforts, they sometimes don't. There are two problems here: first of all, most of the above-mentioned techniques to fight roundoff apply to numerical computing (things like solving systems of linear equations), where answers that are slightly off are acceptable. Such numerical computations are frequent in many fields, among them computer graphics and image processing. The field of geometric computing is different and comparatively new; a full arsenal of numerical weapons simply does not exist.

The second and deeper problem is that numerical weapons are per se less effective in geometric computing than they are in other fields. In geometry, we don't compute numbers but structures: convex hulls, triangulations, etc. In building these structures, the underlying algorithms ask questions like "is a point to the left, to the right, or on the line through two other points?" Such questions have no answers that are "slightly off". Either you get it right, or you don't. And if you don't, the algorithm might go completely astray. Even the most fancy roundoff control techniques don't help here: it's primarily a combinatorial problem, not a numerical one.

Makers of geometric software know the issue, of course, and they take precautions. But in the best case, these only work most of the time, in the situations encountered by the "typical" user of the software. But your application is special, and it may just happen that the code goes astray on your data. This will result in considerably wrong output, or even crashes of the code. The problem is amplified by the fact that geometric software is in many cases just a by-product of computer graphics software, and as such, it does not specifically target at geometric computing.

### The CGAL Approach

Here is where CGAL is different. We concentrate on the geometry (after all, that's what we do best), and the CGAL algorithms themselves don't contain any numerical security measures to keep them from going astray. At first sight, this may look like being different in the wrong direction; indeed, naive use of CGAL may result in all the robustness problems indicated above, including crashes at runtime.

But if CGAL is properly used, the issues of roundoff and its combinatorial consequences completely disappear. Here is how it works: In CGAL, we write the high-level algorithms in terms of a well-chosen set of basic questions (where is a point with respect to a line?) and basic objects (like a circle through three points). Doing this in the right way is not always easy, but once it is done, we have outsourced all the numerical issues, and we only have to make sure that the part of CGAL concerned with the basics returns correct results. Given this, the algorithms on top of it just work. Not in most cases, but always!

Getting the underlying basics always right must obviously involve something beyond naive floating-point computations, and it indeed does. The details are pretty complex, but what essentially happens is that we increase the numerical precision of the computations, if necessary, by using numbers that in principle allow arbitrary precision. These techniques are constantly being refined, with the goal of increasing the overall performance of the high-level algorithms under the exact computation paradigm.

### What Does It Mean For You?

The important thing for you to know is that you don't have to know about it. It all works automatically and behind the scenes.

Well, almost. If you look at an example program in CGAL, it typically starts with a long sequence of typedef declarations, and even not taking this into account, the program may look somewhat more complicated than what you expect from its functionality. This is to some extent a consequence of CGAL's exact computation paradigm.

The chain of typedefs is necessary in order to choose the appropriate parameters for the algorithm. The numerical robustness handling does not happen in the algorithm itself, but in its basic questions and objects. CGAL offers many different ways of getting these basics right, and which one is the best depends on the concrete application. That's why you have to choose. But in most cases, you can simply work with the settings that you find in the example program closest to your intended application, and you will be fine.

Once you get to the actual code, it's also some functionality that looks unnecessarily complicated. For example, distance computations in CGAL return the squared distance instead of what you really want to know, namely the plain distance. Couldn't CGAL take care of the final square root computation itself? If you have followed the previous discussion, you will be with us when we say "no". The result of applying a square root is usually an irrational number with infinite precision, so all that CGAL could do is give you an approximation. (We can actually give you the exact square root as an algebraic number, but it would be somewhat frivolous to impose such magic on you by default.) For you, an approximation might be sufficient, but the computed distance can also be used as a "basic object" in some other CGAL algorithms. For that, it must be exact in order not to compromise the overall design.

Admittedly, reading and writing CGAL code takes some getting used to, but now that you have an idea what's behind it, you may find it less obscure.